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There are easy workaround but it's still a inconsistency which should be fixed at some point. I'm relatively new to Docker and this had confused me at first as well. I had just assumed it was expected behavior and there was a good reason for it. The documentation for ADD does make it sound like expected behavior:. Also it was in original issue about chowning, that have been done by creack.

But I was too lazy to do it and creack also didn't do it by some reasons. I think it's what the user expects: All following operations will be executed as the given user. Keep in mind we're recommend that people run their services as a non-privileged user. Inconveniences like this behavior will prevent people from following that. I open a proposal a few days ago that addresses this issue: For example:. When we consider that a large application might have several hundred megabytes or more, this chown becomes very expensive.

Current way of implementing it with chown :. For this reason, was created to come with alternatives. An implementation of this is created inwhich is currently under review.

dockerfile user permissions

I think fix this problem will help to decrease images size. Specify users when ADD files is a great idea! Also, if someone wants to change the owner and group owner of the files added inside the docker image via COPY or ADD, that actually increases the size of the image by the size of the files added.

I'm subscribed on this issue since maybe two years, and I'm really puzzled why no solution has been found, whatever this looks like.In this post I'll try to explain the method I use to avoid having permission issues when using Docker Volumes. This is pre Docker 1. Before we begin let me explain what are Docker Volumes and what they're used for.

Handling Permissions with Docker Volumes

The official Docker docs explain this feature as follows:. The main use-case for volumes is for persisting data between container runs seeing as container are ephemeral. This is useful for data directories when running databases such as PostgreSQL within containers. Other than persisting databases it's useful for sharing code folders from your host system to the container when running in your development environment.

The permissions problem is most annoying in development and testing environments because usually at some point you want to remove files that the process running in the container has created but you can't because on your laptop you're running as UID on most Linux machines and the files are owned either by UID 0 root or by some other UID that was perhaps hardcoded in the Dockerfile.

This solution is inadequate because you hard-code the UID of the user in the build process and even though your process won't be running as root it's still running as a user that's:. Docker provides a -u flag with it's run command to dynamically switch to a specified UID during container start.

So we can write something like this:. While no. So what we need is something like -u but that doesn't just use the UID of our user but actually creates a user with that UID and then starts the process owned by it.

To do that we have to create a base Dockerfile from which all of our other Dockerfiles will inherit. That Dockerfile should look something like this. In this base Dockerfile we're installing a tool called gosu and setting an entrypoint.

An entrypoint is basically a script that gets executed before any other command that you might pass to your container. So unless we overwrite the entrypoint we are guaranteed to go through this script every time we launch our containers, before we actually run our actual process.

The reason we're installing gosu is because we will need it to switch to the newly created user. What we're doing here is fetching a UID from an environment variable, defaulting to if it doesn't exist, and actually creating the user "user" with the familiar useradd command while setting it's UID explicitly.

Now remember, the reason this works is because the Filesystem doesn't really care if the user is called "user" or "deni" or "jenkins". It only cares about the UID attached to that user, so the permissions will be preserved and various applications will not complain that there is no user with that UID. When using docker containers it's a bad idea to run your processes as root some applications even refuse to run as root. While running as root or any other hard-coded user it's hard to work with volume mounts because the files being written from within the container are going to be owned by a different user.

That makes working with them or cleaning them up hard and needing to resort to sudo or similar. Which is increasingly annoying in development and CI environments. In this post I've showed you a technique that you can use to build all of your images off of a base image which you're probably already doing that will allow you to start as whatever user you specify making sure to create that user in the process.

If a UID is specified, the container will start as that user, and if no UID is specified it will start as a default user with a random UID that should not collide with any existing users in docker images. Aaand it's over !

So we're taking care of the permission issue and not allowing the containers to start as root all in one. If this was helpful leave a comment down bellow and follow me on twitter.

The official Docker docs explain this feature as follows: A data volume is a specially-designated directory within one or more containers that bypasses the Union File System. However, there are 2 problems we have here: If you write to the volume you won't be able to access the files that container has written because the process in the container usually runs as root.

Now let's look at the entrypoint. Conclusion When using docker containers it's a bad idea to run your processes as root some applications even refuse to run as root.The user of the container root in the worst case is completely different than the one on the host.

The file permissions and ownership are all wrong. Taking ownership of the files from your shared folder can be done with chown.

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Here is a simple example of creating a new file with wrong permissions:. We work on the shared folder, and create a file newfile from within a temporary container. One way to fix them temporarily, is to take ownership of them again and again and again:.

If you want to write shared data from within your Docker container and use it from your host regularly, this can get tedious really fast. This can be good enough already. Now it gets more interesting. As you should create a non-root user in your Dockerfile in any case, this is a nice thing to do.

We can use this Dockerfile, to build a fresh image with the host uid and gid. This image, needs to be built specifically for each machine it will run on to make sure everything is in order. Then, we can run use this image for our command. The user id and group id are correct without having to specify them when running the container. In this article, we have looked at a few methods how to write files with correct permissions from Docker containers for your local host.

Instead of using chown over and over, you can either build a correctly configured image, or specify fitting user and group ids when running your Docker containers.

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About the content, privacy, analytics and revocation. Get Better With Docker. Subscribe to get useful Docker tips and tricks via email. We won't send you spam. Unsubscribe at any time.Docker builds images automatically by reading the instructions from a Dockerfile -- a text file that contains all commands, in order, needed to build a given image. A Dockerfile adheres to a specific format and set of instructions which you can find at Dockerfile reference.

A Docker image consists of read-only layers each of which represents a Dockerfile instruction. The layers are stacked and each one is a delta of the changes from the previous layer. Consider this Dockerfile :. All changes made to the running container, such as writing new files, modifying existing files, and deleting files, are written to this thin writable container layer.

For more on image layers and how Docker builds and stores imagessee About storage drivers. The image defined by your Dockerfile should generate containers that are as ephemeral as possible. Refer to Processes under The Twelve-factor App methodology to get a feel for the motivations of running containers in such a stateless fashion. When you issue a docker build command, the current working directory is called the build context. By default, the Dockerfile is assumed to be located here, but you can specify a different location with the file flag -f.

Regardless of where the Dockerfile actually lives, all recursive contents of files and directories in the current directory are sent to the Docker daemon as the build context.

Create a directory for the build context and cd into it. Build the image from within the build context. Move Dockerfile and hello into separate directories and build a second version of the image without relying on cache from the last build. Use -f to point to the Dockerfile and specify the directory of the build context:.

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Inadvertently including files that are not necessary for building an image results in a larger build context and larger image size. This can increase the time to build the image, time to pull and push it, and the container runtime size.

dockerfile user permissions

To see how big your build context is, look for a message like this when building your Dockerfile :. Docker has the ability to build images by piping Dockerfile through stdin with a local or remote build context.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I've been playing around with Docker for a while and keep on finding the same issue when dealing with persistent data.

I create my Dockerfile and expose a volume or use --volumes-from to mount a host folder inside my container. Map the users from host into the container, so I can assign more granular permissions. Not sure this is possible though and haven't found much about it. Also, I'm unsure if mapping the users will pose some security risks. The answer below, as well as my linked blog post, still has value in the sense of how to think about data inside docker but consider using named volumes to implement the pattern described below rather than data containers.

I believe the canonical way to solve this is by using data-only containers. For example, one use case given in the documentation is backing up a data volume.

dockerfile user permissions

To do this another container is used to do the backup via tarand it too uses -volumes-from in order to mount the volume. So I think the key point to grok is: rather than thinking about how to get access to the data on the host with the proper permissions, think about how to do whatever you need -- backups, browsing, etc.

This is relatively new for me as well but if you have a particular use case feel free to comment and I'll try to expand on the answer. Now, lets say you want to edit something in the data folder. So rather than bind mounting the volume to the host and editing it there, create a new container to do that job. Those containers can now be deployed to any host, and they will continue to work perfectly. The neat thing about this is that graphitetools could have all sorts of useful utilities and scripts, that you can now also deploy in a portable manner.

I hope it helps. It previously contained some incorrect assumptions about ownership and perms -- the ownership is usually assigned at volume creation time i. See this blog. If anyone is interested in this approach, please comment and I can provide links to a sample using this approach.

dockerfile user permissions

A very elegant solution can be seen on the official redis image and in general in all official images. Redis is always run with redis user.

Docker in Development - Docker and File Permissions

This means that all container executions will run through the docker-entrypoint script, and by default the command to be run is redis-server. If the executed command is not redis-server, it will run the command directly.

Base Image

This gives you the ease-of-mind that there is zero-setup in order to run the container under any volume configuration. This is arguably not the best way for most circumstances, but it's not been mentioned yet so perhaps it will help someone.

Ensure your user belongs to a group with this GID you may have to create a new group. I like this because I can easily modify group permissions on my host volumes and know that those updated permissions apply inside the docker container.

I don't like this because it assumes there's no danger in adding yourself to an arbitrary groups inside the container that happen to be using a GID you want.

Also, it screams hack job. If you want to be hardcore you can obviously extend this in many ways - e.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Have a question about this project? Sign up for a free GitHub account to open an issue and contact its maintainers and the community.

Already on GitHub? Sign in to your account. The user account and home directory already exist, so the Docker build process is only creating the. When I log in as ubuntu to the container, no matter what I do I cannot cd to this directory. The permissions and ownership are correct:.

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For the life of me I can't figure out what the difference is. Will this really fix it?

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As you can see above I was the owner who was getting permission denied, so is likely to just mask the problem. In this case sshd will actually reject a. We had this kind of issue with docker import. I tried with this Dockerfile:. I just ran into a similar, if not the same, problem with Docker 0. I am the owner of the directory and the directory permission was drwxr-xr-x and I cannot cd into it. Can you give a Dockerfile to reproduce as well as docker info?

After I run into it, I can't access. Testing COPY now. I would imagine this has something to do with ubuntu defaulting to not allowing group access to files?

Just to be sure some of the examples above are setting it to and such which would not solve the problem, but I see just above me is which would seem correct.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Server Fault is a question and answer site for system and network administrators. It only takes a minute to sign up. I'm trying to add a file to a Docker image built from the official tomcat image. That image does not seem to have root rights, as I'm logged in as user tomcat if I run bash:.

If I instruct a Dockerfile to copy a file to that container, the file has permissions and the owner is root. As far as I understand, that seems to be reasonable as all commands in the Dockerfile are run as root. However, if I try to change ownership of that file to tomcat:tomcatI get a Operation not permitted error. There is likely a way to view and change the Dockerfile for tomcat, but I can't figure it out after a few minutes.

My inelegant solution is to add this line before the chown:. Alternately, work with an image that has no software installed so you can begin your Dockerfile as root and install tomcat and all that. It's actually odd they change that in their image from my experience. It makes sense to allow the intended end user to set the USER directive as they see fit.

Since Docker It would have been good to have this as the default mode i. However, the Docker team did not want to break backward compatibility and hence introduced a new flag. Sign up to join this community.

The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. How to add a file to a docker container which has no root permissions? Ask Question. Asked 5 years, 5 months ago. Active 1 year, 11 months ago. Viewed 39k times. Why can't I change the permissions of a file copied to that image?

How it can be reproduced: mkdir docker-addfilepermission cd docker-addfilepermission touch test.

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The output of docker build. Active Oldest Votes. My inelegant solution is to add this line before the chown: USER root If you want to de-elevate the privileges after which is recommended you could add this line: USER tomcat Alternately, work with an image that has no software installed so you can begin your Dockerfile as root and install tomcat and all that. This indeed works! Why don't they take the USER directive into account?

Well, typically you don't see base images setting the directive, as there is no real way to know what user accounts will be on the system.

It also might be easier to just have the files be created as root since that's what Docker has to run as. It seems like a reasonable enhancement request, it would simplify building Dockerfiles if things could automatically be owned by what was set in the USER directive.